Rolando M. Tan of the Elementary School Science Group (ESS) published an article titled, Improving the use of physical manipulatives in teaching science concepts through lesson study in the International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies (Vol. 4 Iss. 4, 2015). The article is a result of a lesson study project known as Project HOTS (Hands-on Teaching and Learning of Science) conducted by the ESS Group of UP NISMED in partnership with the Department of Science and Technology - Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI) and involved teachers of a public elementry school. It describes how the lesson study process guided the teachers in improving the manipulative model they used in teaching a particular science concept or lesson.